World cultures

Source: AceMyHW

Name of Institution

World Cultures

Cultural anthropology uses ethnography so as to use quantitative research approach so as to explore cultural phenomena of different cultures around the world. The societies selected include those of Indian and Chinese backgrounds and the human culture aspect to be discussed is religion. Religion is essential in the study of culture since it in itself define what culture really is in terms of shared behaviors, customs, values, and beliefs and more so it moulds the entire culture system.


  • Describe the background information of each of the societies you have chosen. You need not analyze this background information; only provide details regarding these societies.

The Chinese culture has been recorder to be amongst one of the known world’s oldest societies. The region in which the Chinese culture is prevailing covers a great geographical expanse in Eastern Asia with traditions and customs varying deeply between cities, provinces, and also towns. Some of the important elements of Chinese culture consist of cuisine, martial arts, visual arts, music, literature and religion among others.  In the present day, there are fifty six distinctive acknowledged ethnic groupings in China. The Han Chinese is apparently the biggest group in the country with respect to numbers. Seemingly, all through history, lots of groups have disappeared or fused into some neighboring ethnicities. Similarly, numerous people in the Han identity have preserved distinctive regional and linguistic cultural traditions. The Chinese societal structure has a long history whereby there has been a Chinese monarch for instance, the Zhou Dynasty, Song Dynasty, and Sui Dynasty amongst others (Robinson & Johnson 1997).

The majority social values in the society were derived from Taoism and Confucianism while others such as Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism concepts emerged later. Martial arts have been documented to originate from China and other elements such as the Chinese tea and arts/architecture have elevated the general perception of the Chinese society globally.

India has had a long history going back to the prehistory time some hundreds of thousands of years ago. During the prehistoric times, there was an elongated period of Paleolithic gathering and hunting cultures similar in characteristics and time with the prehistoric/Paleolithic peoples of East Asia and Europe. Then followed growth of settled agricultural societies in some areas and by 27000 BCE, urban civilization emerged followed by quite a number of princely kingdoms and states, large and small all over the subcontinent. Continued conquest and war disrupted by the birth of religions like Sikhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism and also foreign invasions. The conquest by the British brought new cultures and way of living which has since been integrated into the main Indian culture. The country is rich in cultural history and has accepted benevolently the excellent qualities of diverse religions which resulted to rise of various diverse cultures (Gajrani 2004).

Art developed massively direct from Stone Age at a time when the early man was drawing and painting animal figures in caves. Painting has since reformed and is majorly applied as decorations in housing while their dance and music developed from rudimentary to modern types such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Hindustani and Carnatic. Moreover, literature has developed over the ages and the country is renowned for the birth of great scholars, philosophers and thinkers. Big literary works such as Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Vedas have been considered as holy epics. Indian cuisine was introduced as a culmination of various religions and it has turned out to be a cultural foodways identity for the country worldwide (Gajrani 2004).


  • Analyze the aspect of human culture you selected for each of the societies.

The element of Religion in China is described by pluralism ever since the start of Chinese history. All the Chinese religions are usually family-oriented plus do not demand special adherence, thus permitting the belief or practice of a number of them at the same time within a family setting. The prominent religions in china include Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism and they seemingly have similar teachings and a major aspect adopted from these religions is to always live in accord. Taoism and Confucianism was prevalent in china between the periods of 600 and 400 BCE and since the religions advocated for the philosophy of harmony, people and communities were at peace with one another. They believed that one’s wrong doings and ill behavior would haunt the doer in future and most importantly the solution to contentment was self restraint and good conduct. Confucianism brought in strong values within the communities with respect to domains of family life and the government whereby for instance the parents and children had particular rights (Robinson & Johnson 1997).

On the other hand, Buddhism reinforced the previously subsisting beliefs in the country. It instilled virtues of perseverance and patience in hard times since it asserted suffering brought strength. Buddhism faith actually centers on truthful understanding of ultimate reality and human nature and the belief that salvation ought to be achieved right away. Therefore, there is beliefs that in one’s life, they can be released from suffering (disease) and attain true joy (enlightenment, nirvana) the soonest possible and people ought not wait or rather suffer until they die. Other fundamental principles include: accepting Buddha as their rightful teacher, accepting always the Middle Way or rather being non-extremism, Eightfold path, the 4 Noble truths, and Dependant Origination. Also, followers practice or rather perceive that Buddahood to be the utmost achievement.

The Indian religions form several spheres including:  Hinduism which is the majority religion, Islam which is the leading minority religion, while others are the Bahá’í Faith, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Sikhism. All the religious affiliations in the country preach common virtues such as living in harmony as witnessed in festival celebrations (Hardy 2005).

As of the 2001 general census, 80.5% were of the Hindu religion, 13.4% were Muslims, Christianity had 2.3%, and Buddhism had less than 1% (The World Factbook (2013)). Numerous rituals and about millions of holy places such as temples and shrines are all over the country celebrating different religious beliefs. Big pilgrimage temples are holiest centers for Hindu, while pir (tombs of saints) are significant in the Islam faith.  While Christians, Jews, and Muslims believe there is paradise after death while the Hindu belief in pure reincarnation (Hardy 2005).


  • Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the societies in relation to the topic you chose—for example, standard of living, education, or employment opportunities.

The Chinese and Indian religions have several similarities whereby the two countries have a multi-cultural society and old religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism cover the two counties. Religious and philosophical ideas such as various deities, karma, and reincarnation are almost universal in the two countries. The fundamental Hindu beliefs comprise: the power of Vedas which is a historic Indian sacred manuscripts plus the Brahmans (priests); also, the existence of rebirth and the commandment of karma which determines one’s providence both in present life and the afterlife.

Buddhism faith actually centers on truthful understanding of ultimate reality and human nature and the belief that salvation ought to be achieved right away. Therefore, there is beliefs that in one’s life, they can be released from suffering (disease) and attain true joy (enlightenment, nirvana) the soonest possible and people ought not wait or rather suffer until they die. Other fundamental principles include: accepting Buddha as their rightful teacher, accepting always the Middle Way or rather being non-extremism, Eightfold path, the 4 Noble truths, and Dependant Origination. Also, followers practice or rather perceive that Buddahood to be the utmost achievement (Watts 1999).


  • Summarize and address human behavior in relation to your topic and based on your examples.

The Chinese social and religious practices include: feng shui, astrology and prophecy, divination, longevity practices, prayer, and ancestral worship. On the other hand, the Hindu practice living with accordance to dharma, pilgrimage to sacred cities, devotion to goddess/god, puja (worship), meditation, and yoga (Olivelle 2009).

India has had several social problems with respect to religion whereby it has witnessed religious conflicts between Muslim and Hindu which still persists until to date. For instance, the 1980 conflict between Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab state brought out violent clashes due to demands towards religious broadcasts rights by the Sikhs and also separate legal act for religious shrines. Discrimination existing in numerous institutions where for instance the Muslim allege that the Hindu have put their symbols and mythologies in all school textbooks is still bringing tension between the two religions. China has also had social issues related to religion whereby Christians allege the government together with the political drive to interfere with religion. The Christians are segregated, harassed and oppressed in an effort by the country to divide them but they have had a remarkable resilience (Gajrani 2004).










Gajrani, S. (2004). History, religion and culture of India. Delhi: Isha Books.

Hardy, F. (2005). The Religious Culture of India Power, Love And Wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.

Olivelle, P. (2009). Dharma: studies in its semantic, cultural, and religious history. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

Robinson, R. H., & Johnson, W. (1997). The Buddhist religion (4th ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.

The World Factbook. (2013, July 10). CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. Retrieved July 3, 2013, from

Watts, A. (1999). Buddhism, the religion of no-religion: the edited transcripts. Boston: Tuttle Pub..


Social media


Social media should actually cover fundamental factors in its view of working towards realizing the goals and objectives of the firm (Acas, n.d) It should cover the network security. For the organization to avoid viruses controls on software downloads should be developed by using technical security features like firewalls. It should also cover an acceptable behavior that need to be adopted during its operation and use of emails and internet, social network sites, smart phones among other items. Data should be monitored and protected. This helps in enhancing the privacy of the strategies of the organization. The employees in collaboration with their representatives should therefore be consulted thoroughly. The business objectives and disciplinary procedures should also be included in the process of social media networking. It will be documented that social networking can actually be applied internally to encourage the employee engagement level and also used outwardly to promote the organizational reputation and brand.

According to Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) any organization willing to indulge in the social media networking should follow some guidelines. An organization should thus choose the social media applications carefully because new ones keep arising everyday. Selecting the right medium to use usually depends on the group that is targeted and the type of message that will be communicated. It is good to note that every social media application constantly attracts different groups of people dictating the organization to be very active on the application that fully attracts its customers. It is further argued that the organization can make its own application or pick from the existing applications. Existing applications are perceived to be popular and therefore it would be wiser to join them. In some cases the organization may possibly decide to use several social media or even different applications for the same group so as to have the biggest possible reach. This will require that the activities of the social media should as a result be aligned to each other. For instance Dell prefers to use an amalgamation of social networking sites such LinkedIn, blogs, facebook and YouTube videos so as to show its variety of laptop computers in its view of enabling individuals to turn into nomadic mobile workforce.

















Acas – Social networking and how to develop a policy. (n.d.). Acas – Home. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from

This site extends to clarify on the benefits that a company may obtain from incorporating social media networking as one of its strategies in its process of attaining the set goals and objectives. It specifies out the benefits that are directed to both the employees and the organization as a result of using social media.


Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media.Business Horizons53(1), 59-68. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from

Kaplan and Haenlein explain the meaning of social media and the challenges and opportunities that are accompanied by its usage. They also outline the guidelines that should be followed by a company when it decides to use social media networking.


Information Interview


City, state, zip code,

Email address,



Name of interviewee, Title



City, US 1234


Dear Mr. /Mrs. (interviewee name):

I am a journalism student at the University of …. I have the opportunity to research the career field of public relations. While working at the University’s career center, I came across your LinkedIn profile. I am wondering if you will be able to offer some insights and guidance to a bona fide student who is interested in your field.

I am a third year student at California University. I have a lot of interest in mass communication and I have developed a special interest in journalism as a result of my academic studies, my internship and later employment experience. I am currently serving as an intern for the CURM, where I have helped introduce and promote varied events and programs. I have also assisted in maintaining a web presence which is available to all journalism students in the institution as well as connect the students to the school’s alumni. As the director of the school’s newsletter, I interacted with various media outlets in campus and even outside on a regular basis. I also served earlier as an RA for one year where I demonstrated my ability to manage conflict and work to unify the student body through relevant social and educational programs.

I will appreciate an opportunity to speak with you and learn more about the mass communication and journalism. Kindly let me know if you will be available for a brief phone conversation and will be happy to work according to your schedule. You can also reach me at or call me on 123-456-7890.

I look forward to speaking with you soon. Thanks for considering my request.



{Your signature}

Your name.

Thank You Note

Street address,


ZIP Code


Ms. {interviewer’s name},

{Name of company here},

Street and state address here,

City, state, Zip code

Dear Ms. Belinda

Thank you for the opportunity to interview for the … position on Monday, July 22, 2013. I enjoyed meeting and learning more from your esteemed company. I am extremely grateful for the opportunity to learn more about your company and I am very much interested in employment opportunity.

The position you interviewed me for offers an incredible opportunity and I am confident that I have enough experience as well as education background that will enable me to contribute significantly to your company. I am also extremely excited about the challenges this position will present and look forward to working with you if offered the chance.

Again, I am thankful, for the time and the courtesy you extended towards me. I appreciate the chance of being your candidate for the position. Kindly contact me on (555) 123-456 if I can provide more information.


(Your handwritten signature),

Summary of the Interview

Ms. Belinda has a Masters Degree in Mass communication from California University. She has worked in the media industry for several years and has spent five years as a media Relations Manager in a top media industry in California. Belinda has written several articles on journalism and how to improve the same in schools. Her opinion as an expert in the field is valid and her bias may be as a result of her extensive knowledge in the field. Having spent quite a number of years as a journalist and later as a manager in the field, Belinda may be unwilling to hear other points of view and I doubt that there are many people who know as much as she does including most employees at her place of work.

I asked her several questions. When I asked her about the major challenges in the media industry, Belinda replied that with the advent of technology, there is a major shift on how media publishes news. More and more people are turning out to the internet for news and they prefer using social media. However, she insisted that this does not mean that it will be important to do away with print media.

I asked her of the major scandals in the industry and how they can be dealt with. Belinda replied that scandals like phone hacking that rocked Britain should be dealt with according to the laws of the land. She said that phone hacking shows that the media lacks self regulation and is unable to safeguard set standers and accountability in the media. As such, she suggested that a commission is needed to do the same.

Belinda was very free with me and helped me understand the industry as well as with the questions I was interested in. her interview with me will greatly contribute to my argument and as an experienced journalist she offered the industry shortcomings and what can be done to help it grow as well as be responsible.

Belinda referred me to her senior manager in her work Mr. Moray Macs of place who she called and   agreed to meet me on a later date in the month. She also connected me with the Director of Public Communications in the state of California and agreed to meet Tuesday the following week.

Belinda had a strong argument with strong suggestions on how we can improve our media especially in the eyes of the public. She was very impressed with my resume but commented that it failed to capture the experience I have had in the field. I promised to include all that is required of me as she directed.











Uzzi, B. & Dunlap, S. (2005).  How to Build Your Network. Accessed February 17, 2011, at:’s_research_papers/uzzi_dunlap%20hbr.pdf

Informational Interviewing Tutorial. Accessed February 17, 2011, at:




Negative News letter


PO Box 12345

Los Angeles, LA 54321


27694 Bay Point Lane,

Bonita Springs, FL 34134.


Dear Ms. Minnie MacElroy,

Thank you for your continued support as our valued customer. We are pleased that you choose WebTastic for all your design and host of your website.

Unfortunately, as the economy worsens, we have been badly hit. As you are already aware, your account number 123456 has not been paid since signing of the contract. You can appreciate that we have provided you with the best services and have always adjusted to your requests. However, we are sorry to inform you that we have to terminate the contract due to some serious breaches from your side including the pending payments. After some considerations, we have decided that we will we will close down our website.

The reason(s) for terminating the contract and shutting down the website include the fact that we have not been remunerated months now since we offered you the services. This is coupled by the fact that you always your requirements have always been hectic to follow as you keep adjusting them from time to time.

If you decide to have a word with us, we are open during our working hours and we will gladly receive your call on 123-456-7890. Thank you for your time and for working with us.




Sheila Marshall,
Customer Service.










I had to start on a positive note. This is mainly to reduce any damage to the already strained relationship between the two companies. I believe that news, and bad news for this matter should not define our relationship.

By stating the bad news, I had to do it in a clear and firm manner. Opening of the letter had a buffer to minimize damage by using positive goodwill. However, the body included reasons to help the other company see from their point of view but at the same time present myself as being fair and reasonable with my decision. I was clear and firm in stating what the reasons were for terminating the contract and shutting down their website. I believed I should be brief, positive, clear and play a low key about the whole situation.

Closing the letter, I tried to make sure it contained a positive gesture of good will not to damage any further relationship between the two companies and left for a potential solution between the companies.








Guffey, M. E. (n.p.). Business Communication Newsletter. Retrieved on July 30, 2013 from


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